This group collect protocols for the study of interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing T-cells (TH17 cells) in etiology of human uveitis and scleritis. The protocols have shown that blood of patients with uveitis or scleritis contain more TH17 cells than blood of healthy individuals. The numbers of TH17 cells increased during active uveitis/scleritis and decreased following treatment and in a mouse model, treatment with an IL-17-specific antibody reduced severity of ocular inflammation. These results suggest that TH17 cells may mediate eye diseases by inducing production of TNFa, as large amounts of this cytokine are found in retinal cells of mice with ocular inflammation. IL-2 was found to promote TH17 expansion while IFNg, produced by another T-cell type, inhibits TH17 proliferation by upregulating IL-27 expression. This study provides explanations for efficacy of IL-2R antibody therapy in uveitis and suggests that antagonism of TH17 by IFNg and IL-27 could be used for treatment of chronic inflammation.